Tuesday, September 30, 2014

Chapter 15, Part II

Terms to Outline:

  • Prince Henry the Navigator
  • Bartholomew Diaz
  • Vasco da Gama
  • Technological innovations
    • caravel
    • compass
    • astrolabe
  • General History of the Indies
  • Treaty of Tordesillas (look up--not mentioned in McKay)
  • Christopher Columbus
  • Amerigo Vespucci
  • Vasco Nunez de Balboa (also might have to look up outside of the text)
  • Ferdinand Magellan
  • Hernando Cortes
  • Francisco Pizarro
  • "Golden Century of Spain"
  • Columbian Exchange

Questions to Consider:
  • What motivated various countries to begin exploring new areas?  Why did Portugal lead the way and then Spain?
  • How does the text regard Columbus's achievements (or perhaps, lack thereof)?  Why was Columbus credited with so much achievement if he is considered so cruel?
  • What economic impact does exploration have on Spain?
  • Why is the Columbian Exchange significant?  Did it have a greater effect on Europe or the New World?

Chapter 15 Part I

Terms to Outline:

  • Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis
  • St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
  • War of the Three Henrys
  • politiques
  • Henry of Navarre (Henry IV)/Edict of Nantes
  • Revolt of the Netherlands/Union of Utrecht
  • Spanish Armada
  • Thirty Years' War
    • Bohemian Phase
    • Danish Phase
    • Swedish Phase
    • International Phase
  • Peace of Westphalia
Questions to Consider:
  • What differentiated the Habsburg-Valois Wars from the religious wars of the 17th century?  What accounted for this change?
  • What were some of the reasons for religious warfare in the 16th century?  How did they vary based on country?
  • What accounted for religious strife in France, and what major step did Henry IV take to remedy this?
  • How do the happenings between Spain and the Netherlands predict the future of religion in Europe?
  • Why did France side against the Habsburgs in the Thirty Years' War?
  • Why was the Peace of Westphalia so significant for the future of religion and Europe, and how did it affect the status of the Holy Roman Empire?

Chapter 14, Part IV

Terms to Outline:

  • Council of Trent
  • Index of Forbidden Books
  • Jesuits
  • Spanish Inquisition
  • Ursuline order of Nuns
Questions to Consider:
  • How effective were the various strategies employed by the Catholic church to stop the spread of Protestantism?  Were some more effective than others?  Why or why not?
  • Which were the more extreme tactics employed by the Catholic church?  While immediately effective, could they actually have worsened the status of the church in the long run?
  • What was the long term impact of Jesuits on education?

Monday, September 29, 2014

Chapter 14, Part III

Terms to Outline:

  • Calvinism
  • Predestination
  • Consistory
  • Protestant Work Ethic
  • Presbyterianism
  • Huguenots
  • Dutch Reformed Church
  • Puritans
  • Anabaptists
  • English Reformation
  • Henry VIII
  • Church of England
  • Act of Supremacy
  • Edward VI
  • Mary Tudor
  • Elizabeth I
  • Elizabethan Settlement

Questions to Consider:
  • How did other new forms of Protestantism (such as Calvinism) emerge?  Why might they have become popular in certain areas?
  • Why was the English Reformation different from the Protestant Reformation in general?  What impact did it have on the relationship between the English state and the church? How did it impact the general population?

Chapter 14, Part II

Terms to Outline: 

  • Habsburgs
  • Charles V
  • Peasant's War/German Peasants' Revolt
  • League of Schmalkader
  • Habsburg-Valois Wars
  • Peace of Augsburg
Questions to Consider:

  • How did the Protestant Reformation spread into various regions of the Roman Empire?
  • Why was Germany susceptible to the spread of Protestantism?
  • Who prompted the Peasant's revolt in Germany? Who inspired them, what were their demands, and what was the result?
  • How did the end of the Habsburg-Valois Wars (under the Peace of Augsburg) affect the status of Protestantism in Germany?  What does this demonstrate about the power struggle between Charles V and the Germany princes?

Monday, September 15, 2014

Chapter 14, Part I

Terms to Outline:

  • Absenteeism
  • Pluralism
  • Simony
  • Martin Luther
  • Jonathan Tetzel
  • 95 Theses
  • Johann Eck
  • Diet of Worms
  • Edict of Worms
  • Confessions of Augsburg
Questions to Consider

  • Describe the lifestyles of church officials and how this affected the church following.
  • In what areas did church membership remain strong, and morals remain unquestioned?  Why?
  • Why did Martin Luther emerge as the figurehead of the Protestant Reformation, when there were several other church reformers that preceded him (i.e. John Wyclif, Marsiglio de Padua, etc.)?
  • What were Luther's beliefs about the achievement of salvation, the authority of the pope and the bible, and the sacraments?
  • How did Charles V (HRE) address Luther?

Friday, September 5, 2014

Chapter 13, Part IV

Terms to Outline
  •  "new monarchs"
  • Charles VII
  • Louis XI
  • Edward VI
  • Henry VII
    • royal council
    • Court of the Star Chamber
  • Isabella and Ferdinand
  • hermandades
Questions to Consider
  • How did the monarchs of France, England and Spain demonstrate new authority, and work to suppress the powers of their rivals (i.e. nobility, and/or religious minorities)?
  • In what ways were these new monarchs following Machiavelli's tradition? 

Chapter 13, Part III

Terms to Outline
  • Thomas More
  • Erasmus
  • Rebelais
 Questions to Consider
  •  How did northern European's Renaissance views differ from those in Italy?
    • How is this demonstrated in the views of Thomas More, Erasmus, and Rebelais? 
  • How did Renaissance art and architecture in the North differ from that of Italy?
    • Consider the works of Jerome Bosch and examples of architecture.

Chapter 13, Part II

Terms to outline:

  • Michelangelo and/or Donatello
  • Machiavelli's  The Prince
  • The printing press
Questions to Consider
  • How did artists reflect the intellectual hallmarks of the Renaissance that we discussed last time?
  • What, according to Machiavelli, should the ideal ruler be like?  What does this suggest about the people's ability to self-govern?
  • Why was the printing press such a monumental invention? How did it facilitate communication, and what implications might this have for the power of the common man?  For religion?
  • The text suggests that women's status declined during the Renaissance.  How did this happen?
  • Consider sexuality among men and women during the Renaissance.  How does it display inequality and women's lower status?
  • Compare and contrast European slavery with that of the Americas. 

Chapter 13, Part I

Terms to Outline:

Meaning of the word "Renaissance"
secular spirit

Questions to Consider:

  • Why did the Renaissance originate in Italy?
  • What competitions existed as to who governed in the Italian city-states?
    • How did rule become despotic by 1300?
  • How did the Italian city states maintain a balance of power?  Why was this important? 
  • How were individualism, humanism, and the secular spirit considered new ways of thinking?
  • Name some examples of humanist thinkers.  Why were their ideas considered new?
  • Does religion exist concurrently with these new beliefs?  How?
  • Why might the classical subjects revived by the Renaissance have declined in importance during the Medieval era?

Chapter 12, Part III: The Decline of the Church's Prestige and Life of the People

Terms to outline:

  • The Babylonian Captivity
  • The Great Schism
  • The Conciliar Movement
  • Marsiglio of Padua/Defensor Pacis
  • John Wyclif
  • Marriage
  • Prostitution
  • Fur-collar Crime
  • Ethnicity and Race
Questions to Consider:

  • Why did the pope succumb to the pressure to move to France?
  • What caused the Great Schism and how did various countries respond to the Church's split?
  • Why did the Conciliar movement start?  What does it demonstrate about the Church's authority?
  • What was Marsiglio of Padua and John Wyclif's view of the Church?
  • Describe the process of marriage in the Middle Ages.  What were the roles of husband and wife?
  • What place did prostitution have during the middle ages?
  • Why were nobles committing crimes?
  • How were people of different ethnicities treated?

Chapter 12, Part II: The Hundred Years War

Terms to Outline:

Causes of the War:

  • Edward III's claims
  • Land Disputes
  • Flemish Wool Trade
Course of War:
  • Crecy
  • Agincourt
  • Joan of Arc/Orleans
Effect of War:
  • Economic
  • Political

Questions to Consider:

  • What were the multiple reasons for Edward III laying claim to France and the French throne?
  • What motivated ordinary citizens to support the war?
  • What military advantages did England have over France?
  • Why was Joan of Arc so crucial towards France's victory?
  • Why did England support having a representative assembly while France did not?

Thursday, September 4, 2014

Chapter 12, Part I: Prelude to the Crisis and the Black Death

Key Terms/Ideas to Outline:

Little Ice Age
"Great Famine"
Origin of Plague
Spread of Plague
Role of Church During Plague
Economic Effects of Plague
Social Effects of Plague

Questions to Consider:

  • What caused the economic downturn in Europe in the 14th century?  Which countries were hit the hardest, and why?
  • How do you think the crisis of the early 14th century affected the lives and families of average Europeans?  How might their families and/or jobs change as a result?
  • Consider the strength of political leadership in the early 14th century.  What kind of leader was Edward II?  How might this have exacerbated the crisis?
  • What was the cause of the Black Death?
  • How did the Black Death spread?
  • How did it affect the European economy and society?