Thursday, November 20, 2014

Chapter 21, Part II


  • Storming of the Bastille
  • "Great Fear"
  • Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
  • Women's March to Versailles
  • Civil Constitution of the Clergy
  • "Refractory Clergy"
  • 83 Departments (look up)
  • Assignats
  • "Flight to Varennes" (look up)
  • Olympe de Gouges - The Rights of Woman
  • Mary Wollstonecraft -- Vindication of the Rights of Woman


What prompts the storming of the Bastille?  What are the fears of the people?

How were the National Assembly's August 4th Resolutions a reaction to the Great Fear?

What were the provisions of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen?

What did the women's march to Versailles accomplish?

How does the National Assembly change religion during this time?  How do the French people react to it?

How does the National Assembly reorganize France when it sets up a constitutional monarchy?

Why is it significant that Olympe de Gouges and Mary Wollstonecraft make contributions to the revolutionary rhetoric?

Videos on the Reading:

Chapter 21 Part I


  • First Estate
  • Second Estate
  • Third Estate
  • Corvee
  • Bourgeoisie
  • Assembly of Notables
  • Estates General
  • Cahiers (look up)
  • What is the Third Estate?
  • National Assembly
  • Tennis Court Oath


Describe the Old Order of French Society (First, Second, and Third Estates).  Why might developments in the 18th century have increasingly broken down this system?

What caused the major financial mismanagement of the French crown?

What prompted the summoning of the Estates General?

How/why did the Estates General transition into the National Assembly?  Why was the Third Estate dissatisfied with the previously established system?

Videos on Reading:

Wednesday, November 12, 2014

Chapter 19 Part III

Terms to Outline

  • mercantilism
  • navigation acts
  • War of Spanish Succession
  • Seven Years' War
  • the Atlantic Slave Trade
  • Creoles
  • Mestizos


What were the various ways the English began to dominate the Atlantic economy (i.e. through legislation and war)?

How do the colonial wars (i.e. the War of Spanish Succession and the Seven Years' War) affect the status of Britain and France (and to a lesser extent, Spain)?

Describe the economic and social development of the Spanish and Portuguese colonies in the 18th century.

New!  Videos on Reading: -- see my note about the math error!

Chapter 19 Part II

Terms to Outline

  • "putting out" system
  • cottage industry
  • origins of the term "spinster" and relation to the cottage industry


Why was labor increasingly "put out" from the cities to the countryside?  What was the advantage?

Could the cottage industry be seen as an early form of industrialization?  What are some potential key differences?

Chapter 19, Part I

Terms to Outline

  • open field system
  • selective breeding of livestock
  • crop rotation
  • seed drill
  • enclosure movement


Describe some of the major agricultural innovations of the 18th century, including crop rotation, selective breeding, and the enclosure movement.  How does this differ from the previously established agricultural methods, including the open field system?  What were its effects?

Why is there a debate about the effects of the enclosure movement?  Are its effects exaggerated by more traditional historians?

How might women have been affected more dramatically by the agricultural revolution than men?

Tuesday, November 4, 2014

Review on Austria and Prussia

·      Formation of Austria
o   Why do the Habsburgs shift their attention East?
o   How do they attempt to assert their control over the region militarily and religiously?  Was this limited in any way?
o   How did the nobles continue to assert control over the peasantry?
o   How did Charles VI ensure that Austria would remain unified after his death?
·      Prussia
o   Who were the Estates?  How did they change after the thirty years’ war, and how did this allow the Great Elector Frederick William to gain power?
o   In what ways does the Great Elector assert further control over the Junkers, and why do they agree to this?

o   In what ways does Frederick William I assert absolutism over Prussia?

Saturday, November 1, 2014

Chapter 18 Part III


  • Frederick the Great
    • Enlightened reforms of Frederick the Great
  • Wars of Frederick the Great
    • War of Austrian Succession
    • Seven Years' War
    • Treaty of Paris (1763)
  • Catherine the Great
    • Pugachev Rebellion
    • westernization
    • annexation of Poland
  • Maria Theresa of Austria
    • Pragmatic Sanction of 1713 (review from Chapter 17)
  • Joseph II
    • major reforms -- especially abolishing serfdom

  • What are the reaches and limits of the enlightened despots?  Did the wars of these rulers go against their Enlightened reforms?
  • Why might the Pugachev rebellion have limited the enlightened attitudes of Catherine the Great towards the serfs?
  • Why was Maria Theresa NOT considered an Enlightened ruler?
  • Who was arguably the most enlightened of the Eastern European monarchs?  What makes you say so?

Chapter 18 Part II


Bernard de Fontenelle
  • Pierre Bayle
  • John Locke
    • Two Treatises of Civil Government
    • Essay Concerning Human Understanding
  • philosophes
  • Baron de Montesquieu 
    • Spirit of the Laws
  • Voltaire
  • Denis Diderot
  • Baron Paul d'Holbach
  • David Hume
  • Jean de Condorcet
  • Jean Jacques Rousseau
  • salons


How was the spirit of the Enlightenment drawn from the Scientific Revolution of the 17th century?

How did Enlightenment thinkers address theories of government?  Of religion?

Predicting ahead, why might Enlightenment thought have made such a pivotal contribution towards the political revolutions of the late 18th century in both the United States and France?

Chapter 18 Part I

Terms to Outline:

  • Nicolaus Copernicus
    • On the Revolutions of Heavenly Spheres
    • Heliocentric Theory
  • Tycho Brahe
  • Johannes Kepler
    • three laws of planetary motion
  • Galileo Galilei
    • laws of motion
  • Isaac Newton
    • Principle of universal gravitation
    • Principia
  • Francis Bacon
    • Inductive reasoning
  • Rene Descartes
    • Deductive reasoning

What were the various causes of the Scientific Revolution?

Which developments of the Scientific Revolution most challenged church doctrine and how?  What was the church's response?

Was the Scientific Revolution truly revolutionary?  How might we consider Copernicus's decision not to publish his work until his death, or Galileo's decision to retract his support of the Copernican theory help us answer this question?

How might the Scientific Revolution have contributed to the Enlightenment, and other changes in the 18th century?