Saturday, April 11, 2015

Chapter 30/31 Part V

Read "Decolonization" (chapter 30) and refresh on civil war in Yugoslavia (pp. 1047-1050)


Why did European colonial empires begin to disintegrate after World War II?

Contrast the decolonization efforts in Asia (India and Vietnam) with Africa (Egypt, Algeria, Sub- Saharan Africa).

What caused the conflicts in Yugoslavia in the 1990s?

What are some lingering problems in Western Europe after the Cold War?


Friday, April 10, 2015

Chapter 30/31 Part IV


Why did Gorbachev introduce reforms to the Soviet Union?  To what extent were Perestroika, Glasnost, and Democratization successful?

What causes the revolutions of Eastern European countries in 1989?  Why do they happen so quickly?

Why does the USSR dissolve in 1991?  What continuing troubles face Europe afterwards?  What does the entrance of these countries into NATO and the EU signify?


Chapter 30 Part III


How did Brezhnev's policies differ from Khrushchev's?

How did Willy Brandt seek to improve relationships with the East?

What was detente, and how was it accomplished through the SALT I treaty and the Helsinki Accords?

How does the treatment of the Solidarity movement in Poland show Brezhnev's hard line approach towards liberalization in the Eastern bloc?

How did leaders like Reagan, Thatcher, and Kohl approach the Soviet Union in the early 1980s?


Thursday, April 9, 2015

Chapter 30 Part II


In what ways does Soviet rule become more harsh immediately after WWII?  How does this change under Khrushchev?

Compare and contrast how Poland and Hungary experience de-Stalinization.

How does the US's relationship with the USSR improve in the 1950s?

In what ways does this relationship deteriorate yet again in the early 60s?  Why is Khrushchev removed from power?


Chapter 30 Part I


In what ways did the conferences during WWII contribute to Cold War tensions?

What allied policies during both WWI and WWII cause the USSR not to trust them?

Why did the partition of Germany cause tension?

How did the policy of containment pan out with respect to China and Korea?

Explain how the shift towards more nuclear technology also fueled Cold War tensions.


Friday, March 27, 2015

Chapter 28 Part III


How did the World War I economy/production eventually lead to the Great Depression?

Why didn't the Hawley-Smoot Tariff work?

What plan did the US implement to curb the effects of the Great Depression?  To what extent did countries like France and Britain follow suit?

Why was Scandinavia more successful in recovering from the Depression?


Chapter 28 Part II


Weimar Republic
John Maynard Keynes
"stab in the back" theory
Kapp Putsch
Ruhr Crisis
Beer Hall Putsch
Dawes Plan
Locarno Pact
Kellogg-Briand Pact
1926 General Strike
Labour Party


In what ways did the Weimar Republic experience challenges from both the left and the right?  Why were both sides opposed to the new Weimar government?  Why did the Treaty of Versailles contribute to the opposition of the Weimar Republic?

Describe the economic problems that the Weimar Republic faced.  How did France and Britain's opinions about the treatment of Germany differ?

In what ways did Germany begin to improve its relations with Europe by the late 1920s?

How, in general, was France and England's economy fairing in the 1920s?


Sunday, March 22, 2015

Chapter 28 Part I


Describe logical empiricism and existentialism, and explain how both of these ideas contribute to the age of anxiety.  Be sure to explain the specific views of some of these philosophers (i.e. Jean-Paul Sartre argued...).

How did Christian existentialists differ from atheist existentialists?

Explain how the ideas of scientists like Max Planck and Albert Einstein led to uncertainty in science.

How did the literature of the interwar period differ from that of the late 19th century?  How does this reflect the uncertainty of the times?

Lastly, name a few examples of artists and musicians that reflected this anxiety in their work (do you see a common thread here)?


Wednesday, March 11, 2015

Chapter 27 Part V


14 points
League of Nations
"Big Four"
Versailles Treaty
War guilt clause


How does Woodrow Wilson imagine ending the First World War?  How can his 14 points be seen as liberal?  Why did he think this would prevent future conflict?  In what way were his 14 points unsuccessful?

Why might the attenders of the Paris Peace Conference along with their decisions reached through the Treaty of Versailles act to fuel the tensions leading to World War II?


Chapter 27 Part IV

VI Lenin
Leon Trotsky
February Revolution
Provisional Government
Alexander Kerensky
Petrograd Soviet
Army Order #1
October Revolution
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
War Communism


What were the various reasons why the Russian people wanted to overthrow Tsar Nicholas II?

How did the provisional government differ from the Duma?  Why did the Petrograd Soviet also emerge?

What was Army Order #1? How might this have contributed to the fall of the provisional government?

How do the Bolsheviks prevail in overthrowing the provisional government?  What are the various ways the Bolsheviks work to maintain power?

How and why does Lenin end Russia's involvement in WWI so quickly?

What are the reasons why the Bolsheviks were successful in the Russian Civil War?  Why weren't the Allies successfully able to help the "Whites"?


Chapter 27 Part III


What strategies did the government and the press use to invoke a larger amount of support of their country's war effort?

How did the economies of various countries change to accommodate for the war effort?

How did the war effort affect women and poor people?

Were there examples of people opposing the idea of total war?  Give examples.


You will study this section independently, so please use the video and the notes to help familiarize yourself with the content.  Send me your question responses as always.

Chapter 27 Part II


Franz Ferdinand
Black Hand
Schlieffen Plan
First Battle of the Marne
Trench Warfare
Battle of the Somme
Battle of Verdun
Allied Naval Blockade


Why was Kaiser Wilhelm II so ready and willing to assist Austria against Serbia?

What was the reason for the domino-like pattern of war declarations in 1914?

What was the Schieffen Plan and why did it fail?

How does trench warfare affect the course of war and how are Verdun and the Somme good examples of this?

How was the naval blockade successful against Germany?

Why was the sinking of the Lusitania a pivotal moment for shaping the course of war?


second part of:

Chapter 27 Part I


League of Three Emperors
Dual Alliance
Triple Alliance
Russian-German Reinsurance Treaty
Britain "Splendid Isolation"
Anglo-Japanese Alliance
Entente Cordiale
Triple Entente
Kruger Telegram
Algeciras Conference/First Moroccan Crisis
Second Moroccan Crisis
First Balkan Crisis
First Balkan War
Second Balkan War


Identify the major alliances Bismarck fashioned in the late 19th century.  Why did he enter into so many?

Why did Britain end its period of isolationism in Europe?

Why did Germany feel the need to industrialize/militarize so quickly in the late 19th century?  How does Britain respond to them?

How do the First and Second Moroccan crises show the changing relationship between France and Britain?  What causes them to get along better?

Why is there crisis in the Balkans and what does it have to do with Turkey?  How does Serbia feel about Austria and Bulgaria by the end of these conflicts?  Why is Russia invested in this conflict?


Saturday, February 21, 2015

Chapter 26 Part IV


Great Rebellion/Sepoy Rebellion
Hindu Indian National Congress
Meiji Restoration
Russo-Japanese War
Sino-Japanese War
Hundred Days of Reform
Boxer Rebellion


How did the Sepoy Rebellion change the way Britain ruled India?  How did the British try to develop India politically and economically, and how did the Indians respond to this?

How is Japan's response to imperialism unique?

Compare China's response to imperialism to Japan's.


Chapter 26 Part III


Cecil Rhodes
Boer War
Leopold II
Berlin Conference
Battle of Omdurman
Fashoda Crisis
Rudyard Kipling/"White Man's Burden"
J.A. Hobson
Henry Labouchere
Joseph Conrad/Heart of Darkness


How do both the Boer War (1899-1902) and the Berlin Conference (1884-1885) exemplify Europe's "Scramble for Africa"?  More importantly, how does the Berlin Conference lay the ground rules for future colonization in Africa?

How does the Battle of Omdurman demonstrate the "typical pattern" of European conquest?  Why are the British victorious after the Fashoda crisis?

Explain the various defenses of imperialism, including economic/capitalist arguments, humanitarian/religious arguments, and social Darwinism.

Who were some of the most prominent criticizers of imperialism, and what were their arguments?


Chapter 26 Part II


What caused the population pressures in Europe that triggered the great waves of migration?  What were the most popular areas of settlement?

Describe the typical European migrant.  How likely were they to stay in their new area of settlement?

In what ways were Asian migrants treated differently from their European counterparts?


Chapter 26 Part I


What are the various reasons why the "third world" countries started to lag behind the developed countries starting in the mid-19th century?  Think beyond just industrialization--how did developed countries actively make this gap larger?

What specific technological innovations helped facilitate the growth of trade in European countries and the United States?

How did the British use the opium trade to open up its access to China?  What was the result of the First Opium War (ending in 1842)?

How does the United States "open" Japan?  How is this different from the British experience with China?

How do Ismail's economic projects in Egypt eventually lead to its occupation by Britain?  How did the Egyptians try to resist this, and why weren't they successful?


Wednesday, February 18, 2015

Chapter 25 Part VII


Socialist International
Edward Bernstein
Jean Juares


Where do the socialists stand in comparison to the growing nationalistic sentiment in late 19th century Europe?

What is the difference between revisionist socialism and Marxism?

How does socialism continue to influence political parties throughout Europe?


Wednesday, January 28, 2015

Chapter 25 Part VI


John Stuart Mill, On Liberty
Benjamin Disraeli
People's Budget
William Gladstone
Irish Home Rule


What were the various reforms instituted in England in the late 19th century?  Be sure to include policies from Benjamin Disraeli, William Gladstone, as well as the People's Budget (which was after Gladstone). Why was the House of Lords unsuccessful in vetoing these measures?

Look up on your own: Describe the road to women's suffrage in Britain in the early 20th century.  Who were Millicient Fawcett and Emmeline Pankhurst?  How did Parliament respond to their demands?

How did the Irish achieve home rule?  Why did northern Ireland stay with Great Britain?

Why does the Austro-Hungarian Empire establish a dual monarchy?  How successful is this new government?

What are the reasons for growing anti-Semitism, especially in central/Eastern Europe?  What are the responses to this?

Sunday, January 25, 2015

Chapter 25 Part V


Catholic Center Party
Social Democratic Party
William II
Paris Commune
Dreyfus Affair


Why did ordinary people feel increasing loyalty to their governments starting in the 1870s until World War I?

Why did Bismarck launch an attack on the Catholic Center Party, and why did it fail?

What sort of measures did Bismarck implement in order to win the support of the working class?

What were some of the major reforms made in the Third French Republic in France?

How did the Dreyfus affair reveal a deep divide between conservatives on one side and moderate republicans and socialists on the other?


Saturday, January 24, 2015

Chapter 25 Part IV


Emancipation Act
Sergei Witte
Russo-Japanese War
Revolution of 1905
Bloody Sunday


What were some of the most obvious ways that Russia lagged behind the rest of Europe, and how did Alexander II address this in his reforms? How effective were these reforms?

What was Sergei Witte's role in Russian industrialization?

Why did the Russians engage in war with Japan?

What sorts of grievances were workers and peasants expressing in the Revolution of 1905?  Was the Duma an effective response?


Friday, January 23, 2015

Crimean War (Supplementary Assignment)


What causes the Crimean War?

Why do Britain and France ally with the Ottomans even though the Ottomans are not Christian?

What conditions do the allies place on Russia to end the conflict?

What does Russia realize about itself after the Crimean War?  How does this immediately affect Russia's development in the late 19th century?


Another helpful video (in case you are sick of listening to me):

Chapter 25 Part I


Napolen III


Why does Napoleon III gradually liberalize his empire?  How does this demonstrate the growth of liberalism and nationalism by the 1860s?

What causes support for Napoleon III to decline?  Why does the Second French Empire collapse?


Chapter 25 Part III

Terms -- for Wednesday

Giuseppe Mazzini/Young Italy
Vincenzo Gioberti
Count Cavour
Pope Pius IX/Syllabus of Errors
Giuseppe Garibaldi/Red Shirts

Terms -- for Thursday

Otto von Bismarck
"blood and iron"
Prussian-Danish War
Austro-Prussian War
Franco-Prussian War

Questions -- for Wednesday

Why was Sardinia-Piedmont seen as the logical center for a unified Italy?

Why does Italy initially ally with France?

Why does Cavour stop Garibaldi's advances into Rome, even though Garibaldi was important towards the unification of Southern Italy?

Questions -- for Thursday

What is Bismarck's relationship with Parliament?  How does this actually contribute positively to the unification of Germany?

Why does Prussia defeat Austria so handily in the Austro-Prussian War?  How does this war result in the exclusion of Austria from the German Confederation?

Why does Prussia go to war with France?  How does this lead to the unification of the southern German states?

Videos for Wednesday:

Not by me, but I think this guy sums up Italy really well:

Videos for Thursday:

Tuesday, January 13, 2015

Chapter 24 Part IV


Louis Pasteur
Auguste Compte
Charles Darwin
Social Darwinism


How did advances in scientific knowledge help the popular perception of it (i.e. how did people WITHOUT scientific knowledge perceive science)?

In what ways did Charles Darwin's ideas counter religion?

What is social Darwinism and why was it particularly popular among the middle class?

How did realists differ from romantics, and why do you think realism was emerging in this particular era?

Chapter 24 Part III


This is a little different from how we usually conduct homework.  Since this section is so social in nature, I want you to dominate most of the discussion tomorrow.

Greg:  Prepare discussion questions on marriage and prostitution (yay!)
Anya: Prepare discussion questions on gender roles and family life and child rearing.
I will bring questions about changes in education and leisure activities (not in reading, but things you should know).

Let me know if you have any questions!  Basically, have some bullet points to go along with your questions in case there is a lull in the conversation.  A lot of this information is intuitive/common knowledge, but certainly still fair game for a free-response question.

Chapter 24 Part II


Discuss the diversity of the middle class (i.e. the upper middle class, middle class, lower middle class).

Discuss the diversity of the lower class (i.e. labor aristocracy/"petite bourgeoisie", semi-skilled, and unskilled workers)

Discuss the changing emphasis on religion.  Why might industrialization play a part in this?

Chapter 24 Part I


Why were cities in the mid to late 19th centuries increasingly crowded?  What did governments (notably in France) do to remedy this problem?

How did Edwin Chadwick contribute to improvements in public health?

Saturday, January 3, 2015

Chapter 23 Part III


Louis Philippe
Louis Napoleon
Hungarian Revolution
Frankfurt Assembly
Frederick William IV


What prompted the 1848 revolutions in France?  Why was it ultimately unsuccessful?  What does this say about the desires of the middle versus the working class?

Why were the Hungarians unable to maintain their autonomy in the Austrian empire in 1848?

Why was the Frankfurt Assembly unable to get its liberal constitution approved and unify the German states?  What does this say about the nature of reaction in the 1848 revolutions in general?


Chapter 23 Part II


Liberation in Greece
Corn Laws
Battle of Peterloo (Peterloo Massacre)
Reform Bill of 1832
Anti-Corn Law League
Ten Hours Act
Revolution of 1830


How did the liberation movement in Greece symbolize an ideological change for some of the members of the Concert of Europe?

Describe the various reform efforts in England from the terms listed above.  How do they demonstrate a trending towards liberalism?

What were the accomplishments of the Revolution of 1830 in France?  They appear to be much less dramatic than the reforms achieved in England--why?


Friday, January 2, 2015

Chapter 23 Part I


Congress of Vienna
Klemens von Metternich
"Balance of Power"
Holy Alliance


What were the overall goals of the Congress of Vienna?  Who were the major players, and how are their goals not surprising given the previous period?

Explain liberalism and how it is NOT the same as liberalism today.  How far did "classical" liberals want to extend liberties and freedoms?

Why and how would nationalism be a logical byproduct of the French and Industrial Revolutions?

How did Marxism evolve, and how did it differ from the preceding utopian socialists?