Tuesday, December 30, 2014

Chapter 22 Part II

Why did other countries in continental Europe lag behind England in industrialization?

Once they did industrialize, how did the governments of certain continental European countries aid industrialization (give examples)?



Chapter 22 Part III


There is some historical debate about whether living standards improved or declined for the working class during the Industrial Revolution.  Present evidence for each.

What were some of the earliest reform efforts during the Industrial Revolution?  Were they successful?

How did the Industrial Revolution contribute to a great sexual division of labor?




Friday, December 19, 2014

Chapter 22 Part I


Why was England the pioneer of the Industrial Revolution?  What sort of advantages did it have over other countries?

What prompted the shift to factories from the cottage industry?

Why did the factories initially experience problems with fueling/energy, and how specifically did steam power solve this?




Sunday, December 14, 2014

Chapter 21 Part VI


War of Third Coalition/Battle of Trafalgar
Battle of Austerlitz
Treaty of Tilsit
Confederation of the Rhine
Continental System
Peninsular War
Russian Campaign
War of the Fourth Coalition/Battle of Leipzig
"First" vs. "Second" Treaty of Paris
Congress of Vienna
German Confederation
Hundred Days/Waterloo


Why does Napoleon institute the Continental System on England after its victory in the War of the Third Coalition?

What was Napoleon's motivation for the Russian campaign, and how might it have impacted the War of the Fourth Coalition?

(You did not read about the Congress of Vienna, but we will talk about it in class):  How do you think the leaders of Prussia, Russia, Austria, and Britain will want to treat France and reestablish peace in Europe following Napoleon's abdication?



Sunday, December 7, 2014

Chapter 21 Part V


Napoleonic Code
Concordat of 1801
War of Second Coalition (look up)


How does the Napoleonic Code solidify some of the important achievements of the Revolution?

Why does Napoleon issue a Concordat with the church?  How might it have made more people support him?

Describe the outcome of the War of the Second Coalition.  What are Napoleon's goals?  Was he successful?



Chapter 21 Part IV


National Convention
The Mountain
Charlotte Corday
Committee of Public Safety
Law of Maximum
Reign of Terror
Law of Suspects
Jacques Hebert
Cult of the Supreme Being
Thermodorian Reaction
The Directory
Coup d'Etat Brumaire


What are the new factions that emerge among the Jacobins in the National Convention? How does this show the revolution taking an even more radical turn?

Who are the sans-culottes and why are they an important influence on the National Convention?

How does the Committee of Public Safety work to bring about economic change and work to strengthen the military?

How did the Reign of Terror work to control internal opposition?

How does the Thermidorian Reaction respond to the radical and anarchistic nature of the Reign of Terror?

How did the Directory work?  To what extent was it effective?

How is the Directory overthrown?



Tuesday, December 2, 2014

Chapter 21, Part III


  • Edmund Burke
  • John Locke
  • Legislative Assembly
  • Jacobins
  • Girondins
  • Declaration of Pillnitz
  • War of the First Coalition
  • Brunswick Manifesto
  • Paris Commune
  • September Massacres


Why did Edmund Burke and John Locke have such contrasting views about the French Revolution?  What might this suggest about the overall strength of the Revolution and its connection to the Enlightenment?

Why were factions arising among the Legislative Assembly?  Briefly describe the Jacobins and the Girondins.

Why does France begin to go to war with other countries during this time?

How does war affect the French population's view of the king?

How does the Revolutionary government become even more radical during this time (consider the Paris Commune and the September Massacres)?

(Some material comes from outside of the book--you may have to look up some terms to answer them).

Videos on the Reading:


Thursday, November 20, 2014

Chapter 21, Part II


  • Storming of the Bastille
  • "Great Fear"
  • Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
  • Women's March to Versailles
  • Civil Constitution of the Clergy
  • "Refractory Clergy"
  • 83 Departments (look up)
  • Assignats
  • "Flight to Varennes" (look up)
  • Olympe de Gouges - The Rights of Woman
  • Mary Wollstonecraft -- Vindication of the Rights of Woman


What prompts the storming of the Bastille?  What are the fears of the people?

How were the National Assembly's August 4th Resolutions a reaction to the Great Fear?

What were the provisions of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen?

What did the women's march to Versailles accomplish?

How does the National Assembly change religion during this time?  How do the French people react to it?

How does the National Assembly reorganize France when it sets up a constitutional monarchy?

Why is it significant that Olympe de Gouges and Mary Wollstonecraft make contributions to the revolutionary rhetoric?

Videos on the Reading:


Chapter 21 Part I


  • First Estate
  • Second Estate
  • Third Estate
  • Corvee
  • Bourgeoisie
  • Assembly of Notables
  • Estates General
  • Cahiers (look up)
  • What is the Third Estate?
  • National Assembly
  • Tennis Court Oath


Describe the Old Order of French Society (First, Second, and Third Estates).  Why might developments in the 18th century have increasingly broken down this system?

What caused the major financial mismanagement of the French crown?

What prompted the summoning of the Estates General?

How/why did the Estates General transition into the National Assembly?  Why was the Third Estate dissatisfied with the previously established system?

Videos on Reading:


Wednesday, November 12, 2014

Chapter 19 Part III

Terms to Outline

  • mercantilism
  • navigation acts
  • War of Spanish Succession
  • Seven Years' War
  • the Atlantic Slave Trade
  • Creoles
  • Mestizos


What were the various ways the English began to dominate the Atlantic economy (i.e. through legislation and war)?

How do the colonial wars (i.e. the War of Spanish Succession and the Seven Years' War) affect the status of Britain and France (and to a lesser extent, Spain)?

Describe the economic and social development of the Spanish and Portuguese colonies in the 18th century.

New!  Videos on Reading:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ltui5fqtTQE&feature=youtu.be -- see my note about the math error!

Chapter 19 Part II

Terms to Outline

  • "putting out" system
  • cottage industry
  • origins of the term "spinster" and relation to the cottage industry


Why was labor increasingly "put out" from the cities to the countryside?  What was the advantage?

Could the cottage industry be seen as an early form of industrialization?  What are some potential key differences?

Chapter 19, Part I

Terms to Outline

  • open field system
  • selective breeding of livestock
  • crop rotation
  • seed drill
  • enclosure movement


Describe some of the major agricultural innovations of the 18th century, including crop rotation, selective breeding, and the enclosure movement.  How does this differ from the previously established agricultural methods, including the open field system?  What were its effects?

Why is there a debate about the effects of the enclosure movement?  Are its effects exaggerated by more traditional historians?

How might women have been affected more dramatically by the agricultural revolution than men?

Tuesday, November 4, 2014

Review on Austria and Prussia

·      Formation of Austria
o   Why do the Habsburgs shift their attention East?
o   How do they attempt to assert their control over the region militarily and religiously?  Was this limited in any way?
o   How did the nobles continue to assert control over the peasantry?
o   How did Charles VI ensure that Austria would remain unified after his death?
·      Prussia
o   Who were the Estates?  How did they change after the thirty years’ war, and how did this allow the Great Elector Frederick William to gain power?
o   In what ways does the Great Elector assert further control over the Junkers, and why do they agree to this?

o   In what ways does Frederick William I assert absolutism over Prussia?

Saturday, November 1, 2014

Chapter 18 Part III


  • Frederick the Great
    • Enlightened reforms of Frederick the Great
  • Wars of Frederick the Great
    • War of Austrian Succession
    • Seven Years' War
    • Treaty of Paris (1763)
  • Catherine the Great
    • Pugachev Rebellion
    • westernization
    • annexation of Poland
  • Maria Theresa of Austria
    • Pragmatic Sanction of 1713 (review from Chapter 17)
  • Joseph II
    • major reforms -- especially abolishing serfdom

  • What are the reaches and limits of the enlightened despots?  Did the wars of these rulers go against their Enlightened reforms?
  • Why might the Pugachev rebellion have limited the enlightened attitudes of Catherine the Great towards the serfs?
  • Why was Maria Theresa NOT considered an Enlightened ruler?
  • Who was arguably the most enlightened of the Eastern European monarchs?  What makes you say so?

Chapter 18 Part II


Bernard de Fontenelle
  • Pierre Bayle
  • John Locke
    • Two Treatises of Civil Government
    • Essay Concerning Human Understanding
  • philosophes
  • Baron de Montesquieu 
    • Spirit of the Laws
  • Voltaire
  • Denis Diderot
  • Baron Paul d'Holbach
  • David Hume
  • Jean de Condorcet
  • Jean Jacques Rousseau
  • salons


How was the spirit of the Enlightenment drawn from the Scientific Revolution of the 17th century?

How did Enlightenment thinkers address theories of government?  Of religion?

Predicting ahead, why might Enlightenment thought have made such a pivotal contribution towards the political revolutions of the late 18th century in both the United States and France?

Chapter 18 Part I

Terms to Outline:

  • Nicolaus Copernicus
    • On the Revolutions of Heavenly Spheres
    • Heliocentric Theory
  • Tycho Brahe
  • Johannes Kepler
    • three laws of planetary motion
  • Galileo Galilei
    • laws of motion
  • Isaac Newton
    • Principle of universal gravitation
    • Principia
  • Francis Bacon
    • Inductive reasoning
  • Rene Descartes
    • Deductive reasoning

What were the various causes of the Scientific Revolution?

Which developments of the Scientific Revolution most challenged church doctrine and how?  What was the church's response?

Was the Scientific Revolution truly revolutionary?  How might we consider Copernicus's decision not to publish his work until his death, or Galileo's decision to retract his support of the Copernican theory help us answer this question?

How might the Scientific Revolution have contributed to the Enlightenment, and other changes in the 18th century?

Tuesday, October 21, 2014

Chapter 17 Part II

Terms to Outline

  • Mongol Yoke -- effect on future leadership in Russia
  • Ivan I ("Moneybags")
  • Ivan III
  • service nobility
  • Ivan IV ("the Terrible")
  • "Time of Troubles"
  • Romanov dynasty
  • Peter the Great
  • westernization
  • St. Petersburg

Questions to Consider

  • How might the Mongol Yoke have influenced future leaders (like Ivan III) in ruling Russia?  What allowed Ivan to stop acknowledging the authority of the khan?
  • In what ways does Ivan IV ("the Terrible") make the continued push towards absolutism in Russia?
    • Consider the role of the service nobility and the cossacks.
  • How is Russian society transformed at the beginning of the Romanov dynasty?
  • How did Peter the Great's military rule affect the strength of Russia and Peter's prestige?
  • What is westernization and why might it have elevated Russia's status?
  • Why was the relocation of Russia's capital to St. Petersburg significant?

Chapter 17 Part I

Terms to Outline:

  • serfdom
    • new laws to restrict movement of serfs
  • hereditary subjugation
  • Bohemian Estates -- what happens to them in the Thirty Years' War
  • robot
  • Ferdinand III
  • Suleiman the Magnificent
  • Jannisaries
  • Pragmatic Sanction
  • Brandenburg
  • Frederick William, the "Great Elector"
  • Junkers
  • Frederick William I

Questions to Consider:

  • Why did serfdom decline in Western Europe and not in Eastern Europe?  What did the monarchy have to do with this?
  • What was the status of Austria and Prussia after the Thirty Years' War?
  • How do the Habsburgs move towards a more absolutist state after the Thirty Years' War?
  • How did the Ottoman Turks and the Hungarians pose a threat to the Habsburgs and absolutism?
  • What was the state of Brandenburg after the Thirty Years' War?  How does Frederick William, the "Great Elector" make the move towards absolutism in Prussia?
  • How does Frederick William I later solidify absolutism in Prussia?

Sunday, October 12, 2014

Chapter 16, Part V

Terms to Outline

  • Restoration
  • Clarendon Code
  • Test Act of 1673
  • Charles II's views on Catholicism
  • Habeas Corpus Act
  • James II
    • reason for overthrow
  • Glorious Revolution
    • Causes
    • William and Mary of Orange
    • Bill of Rights
    • Was it democratic?
    • Locke's Second Treatise of Civil Government
  • English Cabinet System
  • Dutch Republic
    • Centralized government?
    • stadholders
    • religious tolerance
    • Netherlands' economy
      • major industries
      • joint-stock companies

Questions to Consider

  • How was Charles II's rule after the restoration different from his predecessors (James I and Charles II)?
    • to what extent did he get along with Parliament?  Think particularly in terms of religion
  • Why did Parliament overthrow James II?
  • How was political leadership in England different after the Glorious Revolution?
    • To what extent was this new government fully democratic?
    • How did the cabinet system affect the strength of the monarchy?
  • Compare and contrast Dutch political leadership to that of other European nations we studied.  How might religion and its economic structure play a role in the Netherlands' politics?

Chapter 16, Part IV

Terms to Outline

  • Definition of Constitutionalism
    • which countries were more likely to support it?  Why?
    • difference between Republican and and Monarchical Constitutionalism
    • Was constitutionalism a fully democratic system?  Why or why not?
  • Role of the English Gentry
  • Religious issues in England
  • James I
    • absolutist tendencies -- effect on the prestige of the monarchy
  • Charles I
    • relationship with Parliament
    • tax issues
    • Petition of Right
    • rule without Parliament -- the "thorough"
    • "ship money"
    • "Short Parliament"
    • "Long Parliament"
  • English Civil War
    • Cavaliers
    • Roundheads
    • Oliver Cromwell
    • Pride's Purge and "Rump Parliament"
    • Charles's beheading
  • Interregnum
    • Commonwealth
    • Protectorate
    • Cromwell's military campaigns
    • Cromwell's regulation of moral life

Questions to Consider

  • Why did constitutionalism grow in popularity in England?  What does it say about the leadership of James I and Charles I?
  • How and why did religion play a role in the move towards constitutionalism in England?
  • Why, if Charles I was beheaded, did the English restore the monarchy under Charles II?

Chapter 16, Part III

Terms to Outline

  • Move towards absolutism under Ferdinand and Isabella, Charles V, and Philip II
  • Escorial Palace
  • Spanish Inquisition -- effect on absolutism
  • Ways the following events contributed to Spain's position of power:
    • monarchs following Philip II: Philip III, Philip IV, and Charles V
    • Spain's defeat in the Thirty Years War
    • Treaty of the Pyrenees
    • War of Spanish Succession

Questions to Consider

  • How did the following monarchs attempt to strengthen the Spanish monarchy, and thus move towards absolutism?  Ferdinand and Isabella, Charles V, and Philip II.  To what extent were they successful?
    • Consider their attempts to unify Spain religiously (through the Inquisition, the reconquista, and the Thirty Years War).  Why was their strategy seen as absolutist?  Why wasn't it successful?
  • Why were the wars in the 17th century particularly damaging for absolutism in Spain?

Chapter 16, Part II: The Age of Louis XIV

Terms to Outline

  • Louis XIV's absolutist characteristics
    • length of reign
    • France's position of power compared to other European countries
    • reaction to the Fronde
    • control over different classes
      • the Estates General
      • the peasantry -- what is a corvee?
    • role of Versailles and contribution towards absolutism
    • Mercantilism + Bullionism
    • Jean Babstiste Colbert
      • economic improvements
    • Weaknesses of mercantilism and the French Economy
  • Wars of Louis XIV
    • purpose of wars?
    • effect on France's stature?
    • War of Devolution (First Dutch War)
    • Second Dutch War
    • War of the League of Augsburg
    • War of Spanish Succession
      • Battle of Blenheim
    • Treaty of Utrecht
      • Which European country benefitted the most?
    • Cost of Louis XIV's wars?

Questions to Consider

  • Why was Louis XIV considered the quintessential absolutist ruler?  What characteristics of his rule make him differ from his predecessors?
  • What are the various ways that Louis XIV controls various social classes?
  • How did Jean Baptiste Colbert develop the French economy?  What were the limits of these economic improvements (hint: wars)?
  • Why was Louis XIV constantly at war during his reign, and what was the result?

Chapter 16, Part I

Terms to Outline:

  • Absolutism's characteristics
    • contrast with absolutism in Eastern Europe
    • divine right of kings
    • contrast with totalitarianism
  • Absolutism in France
    • Henry IV (of Navarre)
    • Duke of Sully
    • Mercantilism
    • other economic reforms under Sully
    • Louis XIII
    • Cardinal Richelieu
    • Intendent system
    • The Fronde
    • Cardinal Mazarin
    • Impact on Louis XIV

Questions to Consider
  • What made absolutism attractive to 17th century monarchs?  
  • How did absolutism in western Europe differ from that of eastern Europe? (We will also discuss this more in Chapter 17)
  • Was absolutism the same as totalitarianism?  Why or why not?
  • To what extent was absolutism "absolute" in France?  How does the role of the Duke of Sully, Cardinal Richelieu, and Cardinal Mazarin help us address this question?

Tuesday, September 30, 2014

Chapter 15, Part II

Terms to Outline:

  • Prince Henry the Navigator
  • Bartholomew Diaz
  • Vasco da Gama
  • Technological innovations
    • caravel
    • compass
    • astrolabe
  • General History of the Indies
  • Treaty of Tordesillas (look up--not mentioned in McKay)
  • Christopher Columbus
  • Amerigo Vespucci
  • Vasco Nunez de Balboa (also might have to look up outside of the text)
  • Ferdinand Magellan
  • Hernando Cortes
  • Francisco Pizarro
  • "Golden Century of Spain"
  • Columbian Exchange

Questions to Consider:
  • What motivated various countries to begin exploring new areas?  Why did Portugal lead the way and then Spain?
  • How does the text regard Columbus's achievements (or perhaps, lack thereof)?  Why was Columbus credited with so much achievement if he is considered so cruel?
  • What economic impact does exploration have on Spain?
  • Why is the Columbian Exchange significant?  Did it have a greater effect on Europe or the New World?

Chapter 15 Part I

Terms to Outline:

  • Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis
  • St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
  • War of the Three Henrys
  • politiques
  • Henry of Navarre (Henry IV)/Edict of Nantes
  • Revolt of the Netherlands/Union of Utrecht
  • Spanish Armada
  • Thirty Years' War
    • Bohemian Phase
    • Danish Phase
    • Swedish Phase
    • International Phase
  • Peace of Westphalia
Questions to Consider:
  • What differentiated the Habsburg-Valois Wars from the religious wars of the 17th century?  What accounted for this change?
  • What were some of the reasons for religious warfare in the 16th century?  How did they vary based on country?
  • What accounted for religious strife in France, and what major step did Henry IV take to remedy this?
  • How do the happenings between Spain and the Netherlands predict the future of religion in Europe?
  • Why did France side against the Habsburgs in the Thirty Years' War?
  • Why was the Peace of Westphalia so significant for the future of religion and Europe, and how did it affect the status of the Holy Roman Empire?

Chapter 14, Part IV

Terms to Outline:

  • Council of Trent
  • Index of Forbidden Books
  • Jesuits
  • Spanish Inquisition
  • Ursuline order of Nuns
Questions to Consider:
  • How effective were the various strategies employed by the Catholic church to stop the spread of Protestantism?  Were some more effective than others?  Why or why not?
  • Which were the more extreme tactics employed by the Catholic church?  While immediately effective, could they actually have worsened the status of the church in the long run?
  • What was the long term impact of Jesuits on education?

Monday, September 29, 2014

Chapter 14, Part III

Terms to Outline:

  • Calvinism
  • Predestination
  • Consistory
  • Protestant Work Ethic
  • Presbyterianism
  • Huguenots
  • Dutch Reformed Church
  • Puritans
  • Anabaptists
  • English Reformation
  • Henry VIII
  • Church of England
  • Act of Supremacy
  • Edward VI
  • Mary Tudor
  • Elizabeth I
  • Elizabethan Settlement

Questions to Consider:
  • How did other new forms of Protestantism (such as Calvinism) emerge?  Why might they have become popular in certain areas?
  • Why was the English Reformation different from the Protestant Reformation in general?  What impact did it have on the relationship between the English state and the church? How did it impact the general population?

Chapter 14, Part II

Terms to Outline: 

  • Habsburgs
  • Charles V
  • Peasant's War/German Peasants' Revolt
  • League of Schmalkader
  • Habsburg-Valois Wars
  • Peace of Augsburg
Questions to Consider:

  • How did the Protestant Reformation spread into various regions of the Roman Empire?
  • Why was Germany susceptible to the spread of Protestantism?
  • Who prompted the Peasant's revolt in Germany? Who inspired them, what were their demands, and what was the result?
  • How did the end of the Habsburg-Valois Wars (under the Peace of Augsburg) affect the status of Protestantism in Germany?  What does this demonstrate about the power struggle between Charles V and the Germany princes?

Monday, September 15, 2014

Chapter 14, Part I

Terms to Outline:

  • Absenteeism
  • Pluralism
  • Simony
  • Martin Luther
  • Jonathan Tetzel
  • 95 Theses
  • Johann Eck
  • Diet of Worms
  • Edict of Worms
  • Confessions of Augsburg
Questions to Consider

  • Describe the lifestyles of church officials and how this affected the church following.
  • In what areas did church membership remain strong, and morals remain unquestioned?  Why?
  • Why did Martin Luther emerge as the figurehead of the Protestant Reformation, when there were several other church reformers that preceded him (i.e. John Wyclif, Marsiglio de Padua, etc.)?
  • What were Luther's beliefs about the achievement of salvation, the authority of the pope and the bible, and the sacraments?
  • How did Charles V (HRE) address Luther?

Friday, September 5, 2014

Chapter 13, Part IV

Terms to Outline
  •  "new monarchs"
  • Charles VII
  • Louis XI
  • Edward VI
  • Henry VII
    • royal council
    • Court of the Star Chamber
  • Isabella and Ferdinand
  • hermandades
Questions to Consider
  • How did the monarchs of France, England and Spain demonstrate new authority, and work to suppress the powers of their rivals (i.e. nobility, and/or religious minorities)?
  • In what ways were these new monarchs following Machiavelli's tradition? 

Chapter 13, Part III

Terms to Outline
  • Thomas More
  • Erasmus
  • Rebelais
 Questions to Consider
  •  How did northern European's Renaissance views differ from those in Italy?
    • How is this demonstrated in the views of Thomas More, Erasmus, and Rebelais? 
  • How did Renaissance art and architecture in the North differ from that of Italy?
    • Consider the works of Jerome Bosch and examples of architecture.

Chapter 13, Part II

Terms to outline:

  • Michelangelo and/or Donatello
  • Machiavelli's  The Prince
  • The printing press
Questions to Consider
  • How did artists reflect the intellectual hallmarks of the Renaissance that we discussed last time?
  • What, according to Machiavelli, should the ideal ruler be like?  What does this suggest about the people's ability to self-govern?
  • Why was the printing press such a monumental invention? How did it facilitate communication, and what implications might this have for the power of the common man?  For religion?
  • The text suggests that women's status declined during the Renaissance.  How did this happen?
  • Consider sexuality among men and women during the Renaissance.  How does it display inequality and women's lower status?
  • Compare and contrast European slavery with that of the Americas. 

Chapter 13, Part I

Terms to Outline:

Meaning of the word "Renaissance"
secular spirit

Questions to Consider:

  • Why did the Renaissance originate in Italy?
  • What competitions existed as to who governed in the Italian city-states?
    • How did rule become despotic by 1300?
  • How did the Italian city states maintain a balance of power?  Why was this important? 
  • How were individualism, humanism, and the secular spirit considered new ways of thinking?
  • Name some examples of humanist thinkers.  Why were their ideas considered new?
  • Does religion exist concurrently with these new beliefs?  How?
  • Why might the classical subjects revived by the Renaissance have declined in importance during the Medieval era?

Chapter 12, Part III: The Decline of the Church's Prestige and Life of the People

Terms to outline:

  • The Babylonian Captivity
  • The Great Schism
  • The Conciliar Movement
  • Marsiglio of Padua/Defensor Pacis
  • John Wyclif
  • Marriage
  • Prostitution
  • Fur-collar Crime
  • Ethnicity and Race
Questions to Consider:

  • Why did the pope succumb to the pressure to move to France?
  • What caused the Great Schism and how did various countries respond to the Church's split?
  • Why did the Conciliar movement start?  What does it demonstrate about the Church's authority?
  • What was Marsiglio of Padua and John Wyclif's view of the Church?
  • Describe the process of marriage in the Middle Ages.  What were the roles of husband and wife?
  • What place did prostitution have during the middle ages?
  • Why were nobles committing crimes?
  • How were people of different ethnicities treated?

Chapter 12, Part II: The Hundred Years War

Terms to Outline:

Causes of the War:

  • Edward III's claims
  • Land Disputes
  • Flemish Wool Trade
Course of War:
  • Crecy
  • Agincourt
  • Joan of Arc/Orleans
Effect of War:
  • Economic
  • Political

Questions to Consider:

  • What were the multiple reasons for Edward III laying claim to France and the French throne?
  • What motivated ordinary citizens to support the war?
  • What military advantages did England have over France?
  • Why was Joan of Arc so crucial towards France's victory?
  • Why did England support having a representative assembly while France did not?

Thursday, September 4, 2014

Chapter 12, Part I: Prelude to the Crisis and the Black Death

Key Terms/Ideas to Outline:

Little Ice Age
"Great Famine"
Origin of Plague
Spread of Plague
Role of Church During Plague
Economic Effects of Plague
Social Effects of Plague

Questions to Consider:

  • What caused the economic downturn in Europe in the 14th century?  Which countries were hit the hardest, and why?
  • How do you think the crisis of the early 14th century affected the lives and families of average Europeans?  How might their families and/or jobs change as a result?
  • Consider the strength of political leadership in the early 14th century.  What kind of leader was Edward II?  How might this have exacerbated the crisis?
  • What was the cause of the Black Death?
  • How did the Black Death spread?
  • How did it affect the European economy and society?